can indicate
the right diet

Nutrigenetics is the scientific field that studies the interactions between genes and factors related to nutritional processes, with the aim of prevention.

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common type of genetic variation and are associated with a change in a DNA base at a genetic locus

  • They represent a change in the DNA sequence
  • Occur in the general population at a frequency  greater than 1%
  • They are responsible for  40-75% of the overall risk of obesity

Genes and Obesity

The FTO gene

Variants of the FTO (Fat mass and Obesity) gene, also known as the obesity gene, have been associated with body weight and BMI. In particular, the A allele of rs9939609 polymorphism has been associated with higher BMI, an increased risk of obesity, and higher adipose tissue and waist circumference when compared with the T allele.

Gu, Alvarsson & Brismar, 2010; Zhao et al., 2014

The MC4R gene

The melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R) is one of the most well-known genetic factors that have been linked to eating behavior and energy balance, resulting in an increased risk of obesity. In particular, the C allele of the rs17782313 polymorphism has also been associated with eating behavior traits such as overeating, increased BMI and increased risk for obesity.

Gu, Alvarsson & Brismar, 2010; Zhao et al., 2014

FTO & Proteins

Research shows significant interactions between FTO rs9939609 and dietary protein intake on changes in food cravings.

Specifically, A allele was associated with greater reductions in food cravings in a high-protein dietary intake (P = 0.027) but was not associated with changes in food cravings in a low-protein dietary intake (P = 0.384). Huang et al, 2014

Nutrient-gene interactions

Personalised nutrition** combines genetic analysis with individual personal characteristics and lifestyle factors, which makes it more effective than conventional diet plans. Ordovas et al., 2018

MC4R & Eating Behaviors

The CC genotype of MC4R rs17782313 significantly interacts with eating behaviors to enhance the risk of obesity. Specifically, these eating behaviors comprised the desire for:

  • Sweets
  • Emotional eating
  • Food consumption above satiety
  • Consumption of junk food ≥1 time/week
  • Fast food consumption
  • Late night food consumption
  • Off-table food consumption
  • Consumption of food not due to hunger
  • Eating standing up
  • Eating with distraction